Due to his conservative nationalistic views, Eminescu was easily adopted as an icon by the Romanian right. A major obstacle to their fully embracing him was the fact he never identified himself as a Christian and his poetry rather uses pagan and folkloric themes.

After a decade when Eminescu's works were criticized as "mystic" and "bourgeois", Romanian Communists ended by adopting Eminescu as the major Romanian poet. What opened the door for this thaw was the poem Împărat și proletar (Emperor and proletarian) that Eminescu wrote under the influence of the 1870–1871 events in France, and which ended in a Schopenhauerian critique of human life. An expurgated version only showed the stanzas that could present Eminescu as a poet interested in the fate of proletarians.

It has also been revealed that Eminescu demanded strong anti-Jewish legislation on the German model, saying, among other things, that "the Jew does not deserve any rights anywhere in Europe because he is not working." This was not, however, an unusual stance to take in the cultural and literary milieu of his age.